Retention of configuration is the preservation of integrity of the spatial arrangement of bonds to a chiral centre during a chemical reaction or transformation. It is also the configurational correlation when a chemical species Xabcd is converted into the chemical species Xabce having the same relative configuration. The configurational change when a chemical species Xabcd (where X is typically carbon), having a tetrahedral arrangement of bonds to X, is converted into the chemical species Xabce having the opposite relative configuration (or when it undergoes an identity reaction in which Xabcd of opposite configuration is produced) is called a Walden inversion or inversion of configuration. The occurrence of a Walden inversion during a chemical transformation is sometimes indicated in the chemical equation by the symbol shown below in place of a simple arrow pointing from reactants to products.
PAC, 1996, 68, 2193. 'Basic terminology of stereochemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1996)' on page 2221 (https://doi.org/10.1351/pac199668122193)